It is perhaps for this reason that it was during the anarchic few days of the Memphis riots the opportunity was taken by many members of the police to rape and kill newly free black citizens. Elvira was molested by an officer in uniform who told her that he would rape her unless she paid him five dollars — a situation whereby Elvira had to buy back her own body from its supposedly pre-existing status as the property of a white man, in this case also a representative of the state. Liz is a sessional lecturer and module convenor in the history department, working on sexual violence in the post-civil war US. Such was the predilection of these groups for targeting women that female slaves were far less likely to stray from plantations for fear of sexual assault, but the prevalence of domestic raids was common enough that many sought still more isolated refuge in swamps or dense woodland. Black female slaves were routinely targeted, with black male slaves being beaten or whipped away so women could be raped. In the testimony of Hannah Tutson, who along with her husband was the victim of a violent domestic raid, the couple did not particularly emphasise the rape that took place, but the other general violence that took place, which suggests they believed a conviction for ordinary assault more likely. While such horrors were not uncommon, it is interesting that after the civil war domestic raids such as the one on Mary were done under false pretences, however flimsy. Bell, Unidentified Capitol Police Officer, [? But as the titular example of Lucy Smith makes abundantly clear, although the police would theoretically conceal their actions in an administrative sense, the authority that came with a visual uniform was a key tool in making black communities feel permanently unsafe, and in effect extending the social reality of slavery after its abolition. The wealth of original sources and research made for an invigorating talk that we were grateful to host.