Those on parole or probation may be subject to restrictions not applicable to other parolees or probationers. Although considered cruel and unusual punishment by many, physical castration does not otherwise affect the lifespan of men compared with uncastrated men. Researchers and practitioners consider some factors as "static", such as age, number of prior sex offenses, victim gender, relationship to the victim, and indicators of psychopathy and deviant sexual arousal , and some other factors as "dynamic", such as an offender's compliance with supervision and treatment. Legally, "any person who is a sexually violent predator and any person who is convicted as an adult Two such approaches from this line of research have promise. The term sexual predator is often used to describe a sex offender or any of the "tier offenders"; however, only the category just below sexually-violent sexual predator is reserved for a severe or repeated sex offender: The first uses operant conditioning approaches which use reward and punishment to train new behavior, such as problem-solving  and the second uses respondent conditioning procedures, such as aversion therapy. It results in a year re-offense rate of less than 2. People convicted of any sex crime are "transformed into a concept of evil, which is then personified as a group of faceless, terrifying, and predatory devils", who are, contrary to scientific evidence, perceived as a constant threat, habitually waiting for an opportunity to attack. Therapies and treatment Behavior modification programs have been shown to reduce recidivism in sex offenders. Child molesters were, on average, five years older than violent offenders who committed their crimes against adults.