These included the consolidation and demarcation of sovereignty, the surveillance of the population, and the education of citizens. Mahatma Gandhi right led the independence movement. Politically, by the 3rd century BCE, the kingdom of Magadha had annexed or reduced other states to emerge as the Mauryan Empire. All were capped by the advent of independence in , but tempered by the partition of India into two states: Geography of India A topographic map of India India comprises the bulk of the Indian subcontinent, lying atop the Indian tectonic plate , and part of the Indo-Australian Plate. Indian movies, music, and spiritual teachings play an increasing role in global culture. Proclaiming a unitary state and a gradual but limited British-style parliamentary system, the new rulers also protected princes and landed gentry as a feudal safeguard against future unrest. These parallel chains run from the Arabian Sea coast in Gujarat in the west to the coal-rich Chota Nagpur Plateau in Jharkhand in the east. After World War I, in which approximately one million Indians served ,  a new period began. The appointment in of Lord Dalhousie as Governor General of the East India Company set the stage for changes essential to a modern state. It was marked by British reforms but also repressive legislations , by more strident Indian calls for self-rule, and by the beginnings of a nonviolent movement of non-co-operation, of which Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi would become the leader and enduring symbol. It extends as far north as the Satpura and Vindhya ranges in central India. The rush of technology and the commercialisation of agriculture in the second half of the 19th century was marked by economic setbacks—many small farmers became dependent on the whims of far-away markets. Jainism came into prominence during the life of its exemplar, Mahavira.